Cannabis plants produce over 80 known cannabinoids, with cannabidiol (CBD) being one of those. THC (primary psychoactive component in cannabis) is also a cannabinoid. Other documented, but less researched cannabinoids include: cannabigerol (CBG), cannabinol (CBN), cannabichromene (CBC) and many others. CBD is a non-psychoactive compound and is used with great success in humans for its anti-anxiety, anti-convulsive, and anti-inflammatory properties. VetCS CBD is cultivated from Cannabis sativa strains known to produce high amounts of CBD.
All mammals have an endocannabinoid system (ECS) that is activated by substances in our bodies called endocannabinoids. Phytocannabinoids are substances like CBD that are produced by plants and function at the same receptors in the ECS. At this time there are two known receptors, CB1 and CB2. CB1 receptors are found in high numbers in our brain and central nervous system. CB2 receptors are found in high density in our immune systems. Other locations of CB1 and CB2 receptors include skin, liver, bone, and the gastrointestinal tract. CBD does not directly bind to these receptors, but it indirectly increases the activity of CB2 receptors and also activates other receptors in the body. The majority of CBD's mechanism of action is still being studied.
Two major univerities, Colorado State University and Cornell University, are currently conducting clinical trials on dogs, some with osteoarthritis and others with epilepsy (seizure disorder). They have both published journal articles on safety and dosing (see below). The doses we have formulated for VetCS products are based off of the protocols used in these studies. Every pet is different in their tolerance and effect from CBD, so please contact us if you have questions!
What's that Smell?
What makes a lemon smell like a lemon? Terpenes! This class of compounds originate from plants and gives them their signature smell (pinene is produced by pine trees, for example). Terpenes have long been recognized for their healing properties when used as essential oils. We at VetCS take terpenes very seriously- they affect cannabinoid absorption, serotonin production, oxidative stress, anxiety, inflammation, auto-immune diseases, and even can be anti-bacterial and anti-fungal. Our custom terpene profile enhances CBD efficacy and can support joints, GI tract, and behavior. Terpenes are very sensitive to heat damage; therefore, our process is designed to preserve all the effectiveness of terpenes. Our terpenes are also sourced from the highest quality sources- we use 99% pure terpenes whereas many products are formulated using 4% formulas or less!
Now that we have touted the benefits of CBD, we have to admit that single molecule (CBD only) formulations are not very effective. As it turns out, the whole plant is a vital part of the effectiveness of hemp supplements. Our products not only have high quality terpenes; they also contain lipids, amino acids, waxes, and flavonoids. This full spectrum approach best utilizes the natural components of hemp and allows for maximal activation of the endocannabinoid system and efficacy. Watch Dr. Sanjay Gupta's video on CNN for more information, starting at 0:52 seconds.
Research on CBD and Hemp Extracts
Although controlled veterinary research on CBD and hemp extracts is limited, there are studies performed in humans and lab animal models that can help us understand CBD's application and usefulness. Project CBD is a well balanced source of information. Below are a few veterinary-specific recently published articles regarding cannabis therapy in animals: